Prerequisite to Performance
Arthur M. Noxon
Acoustic Sciences Corporation
Eugene, Oregon USA
The Modulation Transfer Function
is the established basis for testing the quality of speech intelligibility.
This paper reviews the current of MTF test signals as the performance
spec for hi-fi and pro sound playback rooms. Recordings of the
test, made in a listening room under different conditions of acoustic
treatment, will be played while hard copy is displayed.
Acoustic Articulation is the ability of an acoustic
space to faithfully track signal level changes. That description
alone is sufficient to warrant our attention to the subject. What
would the world be like if we increased audio signal gain, but
did not hear a corresponding sound level rise? What if we cut
the signal power and did not experience a drop in sound level?
Articulation is such a fundamental concept that it is easily taken
for granted. It is the current best indicator for a communication
channel and human perception. That is why we use articulation
measurements as the baseline for evaluating sound systems.
The search to define quality audio playback has
for many years been keyed to electronic performance specifications.
However, the final link in an audio chain is always the acoustic
coupler, the interconnect between the speaker and the listener.
The proverbial chain is still only as strong as its weakest link
and with today’s sophisticated electronics and transducers,
the weakest link in the audio chain is undoubtedly the playback
room. The question inevitably arises as to how to test the room
as the final link in the audio chain and what should be the specification.
The long-standing test procedure for room acoustics
is the RT-60 decay time measurement. In the last few years, a new
acoustic test has been introduced into audio. It is the speech intelligibility
test and it comes from the world of speech and communication. Intelligibility
measurements combine the consequences of RT-60 with the room’s
background noise level to predict the integrity that remains of
a modulated signal that has been transmitted across a room. This
test is applied to the acoustic link of sound systems that are as
huge as a dome stadium to as small as a telephone earpiece. Intelligibility
testing is now beginning to impact pro sound and hi end audio, that
is why it is the topic of this paper.
Over the last few years B & K (RASTI) and the
Crown (Tecron) each have produced a procedure to measure speech
intelligibility. Their data is converted into a single number, the
STI (Speech Transmission Index). This test equipment only monitors
the performance of an existing system and is not a piece of diagnostic
equipment. The STI is a performance rating number, it does not help
the engineer to know what to fix in order to get a better STI. The
next generation of test equipment in this arena will naturally be
of the diagnostic type.
The concern for intelligibility and how to measure
it is not new. It dates back at least to early radio days with the
problem of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that prevents messages from
getting through. The development of the telegraph, telephone and
radio, right on into today’s deep space communications form
a continuous chain of contributions to the advancement in the understanding
of the perception of signals.
Within the last few years, Speech Intelligibility
has surfaced as a performance requirement in sound systems. Engineers,
designers, contractors and architects no longer only work towards
smooth-sound level distributions and properly shaped octave band
equalization (EQ) contours; now they are being required to meet
Speech Transmission Index (STI) criteria. Speech intelligibility
is a special application of the basic concept of articulation. It
is a speech band limited and “weighted” version of articulation.
We encounter something similar when doing sound
level measurements. The “A-Weighted” sound level frequency
response curve is not a “flat” response curve, it has
been modified to include the loss of efficiency of human perception
in the lower and very high frequency range. It is the weighted response
curve that is integrated over the audio range to achieve the total
adjusted sound level in dB,A. This is directly analogous to the
STI which is an integration of the articulation frequency response
curve which has been weighted for the purpose of speech and communication.
Modulation Transfer Function
The response curve that forms the basis of articulation
measurements is called the MTF, or Modulation Transfer Function,
ranges from zero to 100%. Zero percent MTF signifies that a modulated
signal is undetectable by a person. Tone bursts, as in a Morse code
transmission, would have absolutely no signal modulation at the
receiving end. There are two ways this can happen.
achieve zero signal modulation, the receiver could be a long way
from the transmitter. It would receive nothing but background noise,
“static” on the transmission channel. The tone sequence
may well actually be received but it is not perceived by the listener
if the signal is buried more than 10 dB below the background noise
floor. The MTF is zero if the external noise is too loud compared
to the modulated signal.
Another instance in which MTF drops to zero would
occur when transmitting code across a reverb chamber. With a typical
RT-60 of 10 seconds (sound level drops 60 dB in 10 seconds), the
rapid staccato of a Morse code will be totally obscured by the room’s
reverberant noise field. Because the tone of the reverberation sounds
just like the signal, it masks the signal very easily. The reverberant
field type of noise easily masks signal modulation that is 5 dB
below the noise floor.
preferred signal perception is 100% MTF. Morse Code could easily
have 40 dB of electronic signal modulation, the tone burst signal
level relative to the circuit noise floor. People have limits to
perceived modulation. Sound over 140 dB is painful and that under
10 dB is inaudible. Maximum perceptible modulation is 130 dB. That
is why a 1000 dB signal-to-noise ration is imperceptibly different
from a 100dB SNR, assuming the signal strength for both signals
was the same.
We might be able to tolerate 130 dB of signal level
modulation but 20 dB has proven to be effectively full range. A
10 dB modulated SNR has proven clearly heard, this would occur if
a 70 dB test tone was placed in a 60 dB background noise level.
result of many studies in perception is that for effective communication,
modulated 18 dB SNR is sufficient to be called 100% modulation.
At the other end is ½ dB modulation which is essentially
imperceptible. The dynamic range for modulated signals that is significant
to human perception is about 18 dB. With these two end points defined,
all that remains is to fill in between the intervening points. Much
research into human perception has been spent in developing this
relationship shown in Figure 1.
Signal to Noise Ratio By now it should be clear that an articulation test measures
both the dynamic and static behavior of sound levels. A third-octave
or other RTA device measures static sound level conditions. The
sound levels of a facility can be measured first without and later
with a signal applied and the MTF can be evaluated with respect
to background noise.
background noise spectrum can be loaded into “Memory A”
of an RTA. Then power up the sound system and measure pink noise
levels at the listening position. Load them into “Memory B.”
The difference between these two curves is the SNR vs. frequency
curve. An example of this is shown in Figure 2.
The SNR can be converted to MTF by using Figure
1. The resulting TI (Transmission Index) vs. frequency
curve of Figure 4 is a linear, unweighted response
curve. For speech intelligibility the TI is multiplied
by the weighting curve for (Figure 1) speech. The result shown in
Figure 5 is the band-limited STF (Speech Transfer
Function) curve. The percent of the area coverage under the STF
equals the STI, Speech Transmission Index.
This signal to background noise version of MTF
analysis is fairly straight forward. Most of us in audio could produce
today the STI by using an RTA, the MTF-S/N chart, the STF weighting
curve and a lot of data plotting. This version of MTF has limited
application. Conceptually, it measures the quality of communication
for an anechoic chamber filled with background noise the announce
system in a noisy, large factory or the PA for a huge, noise crowd
of people might be a reasonable application.
Signal to RT-60 Ratio The other aspect of MTF includes reverberation, the more
common problem in audio playback. Reverberation is the energy that
lingers after a signal has been transmitted. No matter how reverberant
a space may be, the residual energy will eventually die away leaving
the ambient background noise as the sound in the room. If an alarm
went off every hour in a reverb chamber a valid signal would be
received because the time between signals far exceeds the decay
time of the reverb chamber. Conversely, a high-speed Morse code
transmitting four bursts per second would be converted to a total
blur of noise, completely inaudible signal modulation.
a consequence of reverberation, the signal modulation rate or bursts
per second is related to the MTF. Slow burst rates naturally have
good MTF and fast burst rates often have poor MTF. The range of
burst rates that matter to people and communication is the range
from 2 Hz to 20 Hz and the MTF vs. Reverberation, shown in Figure
6. Burst rates above 20 Hz sound like a low frequency note
and therefore are not capable of being a modulate signal.
Real World MTF
The two basic versions of signal-to-noise have
been presented. Background noise and reverberation are combined
in most real-life situations. If the MTF for these two independent
processes can be determined and the combined effect is desired,
then we multiply the background noise MTF by the RT-60 MTF. The
result gives the combined effect of substantial background noise
in a reverberant space.
example, consider a noise basketball game in a gymnasium. The crowd
noise level could be 85 dB,A. The PA might be set at 90 dB. The
RT-60 of the occupied gym might be 2.5 seconds. Shown in Figure
7 the SNR of 5 dB gives 75% partial MTF due to the PA level
and crowd noise. The MTF/RT-60 curve gives a partial MTF of about
50% due to the gym reverberance at 2 bursts/sec. The combined effect
is a MTF of about 35%, pretty bad. Successful announcers instinctively
understand this and enunciate slowly to utilize the intelligibility
benefits that go with slow modulation rates.
3-Dimensional MTF Displays
With MTF, the signal modulation rate is not impacted
by the background noise levels but it is strongly effected by the
RT-60. Low modulation rates are more audible than fast modulations
in a reverberant space. At the lowest modulation rate, the MTF is
usually controlled by the background or external noise. MTF for
the higher burst rates are controlled by the reverberation of the
The full audio frequency ranges from 20 Hz to 20
KHz. Not only does the background noise spectrum vary with frequency,
the RT-60 will also vary with frequency. The next step then is to
perform the MTF analysis throughout the full frequency range. The
MTF frequency response curve is absolutely essential for a detailed
analysis or diagnostics of the communication channel.
both the modulation and tonal frequency aspects of MTF are combined,
the result appears as a 3-dimensional print-out, or the MTF waterfall.
Figure 8 illustrates this display. The present day’s use of
MTF analysis is dedicated to speech intelligibility. It is limited
(Figure 9) to modulation rates between 2 and 8
Hz, and a frequency range between 100 Hz and 4 KHz. This is 1/6
of the total 3-dimensional MTF volume available to human perception.
Depending on the application, different sections of the MTF volume
will be used. For example, as shown in Figure 10, a Morse Code transmission
would need a narrow range, about 1/30 of the total MTF space.
typical recording studio control room and quality hi-fi listening
room are required to handle a wide frequency range and be capable
of fast modulation rates. Figure 10 also shows
how a precision playback room might occupy 50% of the full MTF space.
Dynamic stability might be required up to a 12 Hz modulation rate
for any frequency ranging between 40 Hz and 16 KHz.
A digital sampling studio could have even higher
expectations and be required to track well into the first 70% of
the MTF space. It might have the full frequency bandwidth of 20
Hz to 20 KHz and handle up to a 15 Hz modulation rate. The MTF volume
for various categories of performance can only be estimated at this
time as they have yet to be properly defined.
The role of MTF analysis in audio is just
beginning to make its presence felt. For the last two years it has
been making its way into audio by the way of commercial sound systems.
An advancement into one specialty area of audio eventually makes
its presence felt in all areas of audio. It is safe to expect that
in the next decade we will be using another rackmount, the MTF will
probably be located just above the RTA and EQ. There can be no doubt
that by including human perception of signals as an audio performance
indicator we will produce even better, more accurate and most importantly,
more relevant audio playback systems.